Kubernetes Dashboard图形化

[TOC]

Kubernetes Dashboard 设置用户密码登陆


Dashboard 介绍

仪表板是基于Web的Kubernetes用户界面。您可以使用仪表板将容器化应用程序部署到Kubernetes集群,对容器化应用程序进行故障排除,并管理集群本身及其伴随资源。您可以使用仪表板来概述群集上运行的应用程序,以及创建或修改单个Kubernetes资源(例如部署,作业,守护进程等)。例如,您可以使用部署向导扩展部署,启动滚动更新,重新启动Pod或部署新应用程序。

仪表板还提供有关群集中Kubernetes资源状态以及可能发生的任何错误的信息。

-w954

-w1613

Dashboard 安装

Dashboard yaml

wget http://down.i4t.com/dashboard.yaml

因为默认镜像是在谷歌,因为墙的原因,我们使用国内的镜像

 docker pull mirrorgooglecontainers/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.8.3

优化dashboard.yaml文件(以下步骤可以不进行操作)

使用IP+端口方式启动

官方文档是需要使用proxy方式启动,感觉使用比较麻烦。所以我们指定使用端口的方式

K8s 1.11不兼容Dashboard 1.8.2

修改前

# ------------------- Dashboard Service ------------------- #

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard

修改后

# ------------------- Dashboard Service ------------------- #

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  type: NodePort
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
      nodePort: 30000
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard

添加type:NodePort
暴露端口修改为30000
端口30000-37000直接

修改镜像地址 -w942

生成RBAC文件

#admin dashboard-admin.yaml
cat > dashboard-admin.yaml <<EOF
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1  
kind: ClusterRoleBinding  
metadata:  
  name: kubernetes-dashboard  
  labels:  
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard  
roleRef:  
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io  
  kind: ClusterRole  
  name: cluster-admin  
subjects:  
- kind: ServiceAccount  
  name: kubernetes-dashboard  
  namespace: kube-system  
EOF

2个yaml文件详情如下:

kubernetes_dashboard.yaml

cat > kubernetes-dashboard.yaml << EOF
# Copyright 2017 The Kubernetes Authors.
#
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
#
#     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
#
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

# Configuration to deploy release version of the Dashboard UI compatible with
# Kubernetes 1.8.
#
# Example usage: kubectl create -f <this_file>

# ------------------- Dashboard Secret ------------------- #

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
  namespace: kube-system
type: Opaque

---
# ------------------- Dashboard Service Account ------------------- #

apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kube-system

---
# ------------------- Dashboard Role & Role Binding ------------------- #

kind: Role
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-minimal
  namespace: kube-system
rules:
  # Allow Dashboard to create 'kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder' secret.
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["secrets"]
  verbs: ["create"]
  # Allow Dashboard to create 'kubernetes-dashboard-settings' config map.
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["configmaps"]
  verbs: ["create"]
  # Allow Dashboard to get, update and delete Dashboard exclusive secrets.
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["secrets"]
  resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-key-holder", "kubernetes-dashboard-certs"]
  verbs: ["get", "update", "delete"]
  # Allow Dashboard to get and update 'kubernetes-dashboard-settings' config map.
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["configmaps"]
  resourceNames: ["kubernetes-dashboard-settings"]
  verbs: ["get", "update"]
  # Allow Dashboard to get metrics from heapster.
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["services"]
  resourceNames: ["heapster"]
  verbs: ["proxy"]
- apiGroups: [""]
  resources: ["services/proxy"]
  resourceNames: ["heapster", "http:heapster:", "https:heapster:"]
  verbs: ["get"]

---
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1
kind: RoleBinding
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-minimal
  namespace: kube-system
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: Role
  name: kubernetes-dashboard-minimal
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kube-system

---
# ------------------- Dashboard Deployment ------------------- #

kind: Deployment
apiVersion: apps/v1beta2
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  replicas: 1
  revisionHistoryLimit: 10
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  template:
    metadata:
      labels:
        k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: kubernetes-dashboard
        image: mirrorgooglecontainers/kubernetes-dashboard-amd64:v1.8.3
        ports:
        - containerPort: 8443
          protocol: TCP
        args:
          - --auto-generate-certificates
          # Uncomment the following line to manually specify Kubernetes API server Host
          # If not specified, Dashboard will attempt to auto discover the API server and connect
          # to it. Uncomment only if the default does not work.
          # - --apiserver-host=http://my-address:port
        volumeMounts:
        - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
          mountPath: /certs
          # Create on-disk volume to store exec logs
        - mountPath: /tmp
          name: tmp-volume
        livenessProbe:
          httpGet:
            scheme: HTTPS
            path: /
            port: 8443
          initialDelaySeconds: 30
          timeoutSeconds: 30
      volumes:
      - name: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
        secret:
          secretName: kubernetes-dashboard-certs
      - name: tmp-volume
        emptyDir: {}
      serviceAccountName: kubernetes-dashboard
      # Comment the following tolerations if Dashboard must not be deployed on master
      tolerations:
      - key: node-role.kubernetes.io/master
        effect: NoSchedule

---
# ------------------- Dashboard Service ------------------- #

kind: Service
apiVersion: v1
metadata:
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kube-system
spec:
  type: NodePort
  ports:
    - port: 443
      targetPort: 8443
      nodePort: 30000
  selector:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
EOF

kubernetes_rbac_dashboard.yaml

cat > dashboard-admin.yaml << EOF
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  labels:
    k8s-app: kubernetes-dashboard
roleRef:
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: cluster-admin
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: kubernetes-dashboard
  namespace: kube-system
EOF

使用Nginx 代理方式

如果不使用直接端口通过proxy可以通过下面的方式

#由于1.8之后的kubernetes版本对dashboard做出了限制,所以需要生成一个proxy代理dashboard的web页面
#在任意一个master上执行以下命令
nohup kubectl proxy --address=0.0.0.0 --port=配置端口 --accept-hosts='^*$' > /tmp/proxy.log 2>&1 &
#然后访问页面,apiserver-address换成生成的那个master的IP
http://${apiserver-address}:配置端口/api/v1/namespaces/kube-system/services/https:kubernetes-dashboard:/proxy/#!/login

创建dashboard.yaml和rbac

kubectl create -f kubernetes-dashboard.yaml
kubectl create -f dashboard-admin.yaml

查看pods -w1331

默认情况下部署成功后可以直接访问 https://NODE_IP:配置的端口 访问,但是想要登录进去查看的话需要使用 kubeconfig 或者 access token 的方式;实际上这个就是 RBAC 授权控制,以下提供一个创建 admin access token 的脚本,更细节的权限控制比如只读用户可以参考 使用 RBAC 控制 kubectl 权限,RBAC 权限控制原理是一样的

访问地址:https://192.168.60.24:30000/#!/login 请使用火狐浏览器 本次我们使用ip+端口的方式访问,还可以直接访问nginx代理 -w893

我们使用生成的Token访问

kubectl -n kube-system describe secret $(kubectl -n kube-system get secret | grep admin-user | awk '{print $1}') | grep token

我们找到dashboard的token -w1675

登陆成功之后 -w1680


设置更规范的rbac

提示:上面的rbac文件用户匿名也可以访问,更安全的规则应该如下

[root@master dashboard]# cat dashboard-admin_new.yaml
kind: ClusterRoleBinding
apiVersion: rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1beta1
metadata:
  name: admin
  annotations:
    rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate: "true"
roleRef:
  kind: ClusterRole
  name: cluster-admin
  apiGroup: rbac.authorization.k8s.io
subjects:
- kind: ServiceAccount
  name: admin
  namespace: kube-system
---
apiVersion: v1
kind: ServiceAccount
metadata:
  name: admin
  namespace: kube-system
  labels:
    kubernetes.io/cluster-service: "true"
    addonmanager.kubernetes.io/mode: Reconcile

匿名登录时: -w1679

[root@master dashboard]# kubectl get secrets -n kube-system |grep admin
admin-token-qm5nm                     kubernetes.io/service-account-token   3         5m

[root@master dashboard]# kubectl describe secret admin-token-qm5nm -n kube-system
Name:         admin-token-qm5nm
Namespace:    kube-system
Labels:       <none>
Annotations:  kubernetes.io/service-account.name=admin
              kubernetes.io/service-account.uid=45b7b37e-93eb-11e8-aad1-000c29c0d56b

Type:  kubernetes.io/service-account-token

Data
====
token:      eyJhbGciOiJSUzI1NiIsImtpZCI6IiJ9.eyJpc3MiOiJrdWJlcm5ldGVzL3NlcnZpY2VhY2NvdW50Iiwia3ViZXJuZXRlcy5pby9zZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudC9uYW1lc3BhY2UiOiJrdWJlLXN5c3RlbSIsImt1YmVybmV0ZXMuaW8vc2VydmljZWFjY291bnQvc2VjcmV0Lm5hbWUiOiJhZG1pbi10b2tlbi1xbTVubSIsImt1YmVybmV0ZXMuaW8vc2VydmljZWFjY291bnQvc2VydmljZS1hY2NvdW50Lm5hbWUiOiJhZG1pbiIsImt1YmVybmV0ZXMuaW8vc2VydmljZWFjY291bnQvc2VydmljZS1hY2NvdW50LnVpZCI6IjQ1YjdiMzdlLTkzZWItMTFlOC1hYWQxLTAwMGMyOWMwZDU2YiIsInN1YiI6InN5c3RlbTpzZXJ2aWNlYWNjb3VudDprdWJlLXN5c3RlbTphZG1pbiJ9.oyKYKFJTUkwhcR8ZhlyZKzjs9DemMPGOXaSCq3UY7uAq18nQNktQ69QEP38B3uBrLQ5DjlFSjNrs3_O6n_kzSj4PlOjJyj2rGynELljxgrAvK6CNFWWNTDolqrb4o1C2Uw-xRKGdDGYeHvEuif1rZhvVmbIe9KK5sC6zyGPkgSuBDYU3OGMrMIQtr-SdPUzdUXUXMsyU-H9D51AXyRa-aP5LkEJm4iNU9aFAGbsw-STzB3JLkF_UAzH_J127HOvsjF7MPhcFWEHhFt4jYLZGoB_9CwgNaRV7VUBwuxTKLl7B2TC6erl-eOqxFtjRslE0oKp2QiGbapcGchIsJNJYHQaenbFoKbL7NQJzifwtB3owqd_I_BmEl2FEZYSK4Rz9IrAg7srupRE7tWrg4vV_szgTbdsD3tMBVISvLFDbfBI3XbR3zTolpgbTdIZsbqjU-Swke6h3qgAfhzLhkltHCyFvv8bHmM3oCKKlyS6NBpiQEy7MrYKyEtZbsDXA8HKbs_jtKx6GL3mSyviBrsR1DSoThn158mihD9lftCWyLSCYQxMJ58dVY9UaC3EXOXrHg3ntG2nNNFBxHy5W_znptcq972-0YwL_s6PmGVGD1k1H7peh7r9ihk2DJhD1wJFxyo_5JOk0jlBgLmXFFGBpJB7SWL1_158DdsWU6zpxUQU
ca.crt:     2053 bytes
namespace:  11 bytes


[root@master dashboard]# kubectl describe clusterrole cluster-admin -n kube-system
Name:         cluster-admin
Labels:       kubernetes.io/bootstrapping=rbac-defaults
Annotations:  rbac.authorization.kubernetes.io/autoupdate=true
PolicyRule:
  Resources  Non-Resource URLs  Resource Names  Verbs
  ---------  -----------------  --------------  -----
  *.*        []                 []              [*]
             [*]                []              [*]
[root@master dashboard]#

当我们以这种方式获取到的token才可以登陆 参考文章:https://studygolang.com/articles/11730?fr=sidebar

Copyright © i4t.com 2019 all right reserved,powered by Gitbook该文件修订时间: 2019-11-21 17:02:55

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